Gifted and General Education
The Five Essentials
Cooperative learning is structured around interdependence ; students assume roles, perform tasks and work to achieve a common goal. Face-to-Face interaction is a crucial part of the process, because students are expected to imitate the way adults work in real life; they learn to effectively communicate through discussions and share information. Students are individually accountable for their contributions to the group product but are also socially and interpersonally engaged in ways that help reinforce or develop trust in one another. Group processing is the final phase. Learners reflect on processes and outcomes; what went right, what obstacles existed and how the product or procedure might be improved next time.
The Cooperative Learning Models listed below were designed for small heterogeneous-mixed ability groups, containing different genders, races and cultures etc. While Huss (2006), reported positive achievement gains in mid and low ability learners, Karnes & Bean (2005) reported underachievement in gifted learners when placed in mixed ability groups. See Grouping Strategies
Johnson and Johnson's Model focuses on learning centers and the development of social skills. Activities are either assigned or chosen and students assume specific roles to accomplish common goals.
Slavin's Model engages content through team competition; incentives are provided to promote shared learning but learners are held responsible for mastery of the content.
Kagan's Model Focuses on diversity and individual accountability. Positive achievement gains are reported, in particular among minorities and low achieving learners. Group rewards provide incentives for group participation and teachers provide activities such as: Think and Pair Share; Round Robin and Jigsaw etc.
Johnson and Johnsons Cooperative Learning Model
Slavins Cooperative Learning Model
Kagans Cooperative Learning Model
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Ellett, P. (1993). Cooperative learning and gifted education. Roeper Review, 16(2), 114-16
Fiedler-Brand, E., Lange, R. E., Winebrenner, S., & Pennsylvania Association for Gifted Education, N. n. (1992). Tracking, ability grouping and the gifted. PAGE Bulletin.
Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: what and how do students learn. Educational Psychology Review, 16(3), 235.
Huss, J. A. (2006), Gifted education and cooperative learning: A miss or match. Gifted Child Today, 29(4), 19-23.
Karnes, F. A. & Bean, S.M (2005). Methods and materials for teaching the gifted. Prufrock Press Inc. Waco, Texas.
Kohn, A. (1986). How to succeed without even trying. Psychology Today, 20(9), 22-28.
Neu, T. W., Baum, S. M., & Cooper, C. R. (2004). Talent development in science: a unique tale of one student's journey. Journal Of Secondary Gifted Education.
Robinson, A., Shore, B. & Enersen D. (2007). Best practices in gifted education. Prufrock Press. Waco Texas.
Rogers, K.B. (2002). Re-forming gifted education. Great Potential Press. Scottsdale, Az.
Rubenstein, L., & Wilson, H. E. (2011). Spicing up classrooms using creative challenges. Gifted Child Today, 34(2), 57-65.
Tieso, C. L. (2005). The effects of grouping practices and curricular adjustments on achievement. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 29, 60-89
Wilgus, B. (2002, July 1). The relationship of peer collaboration on third grade student math performance.
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